Water supply systems
Water supply system is one of the main elements of water supply facilities and during the operation it is inseparably linked with the conduits, pumping stations which deliver the water to a system and also with the regulating capacities (tanks and towers).
Water supply system is to comply with basic requirements as follows:
- provide the delivery of set amounts of water to places of its consumption under the demanded pressure;
- possess sufficient degree of reliability and uninterrupted water supply of consumers.
Furthermore, fulfilling the set requirements, the system has to be designed most efficiently, i.e. provide the smallest size of the given costs of construction and operation of the system and other facilities of system inseparably linked with it.
We reach meeting of these requirements by setting a right configuration of a system and pipes’ material and the correct determination of diameters of pipes from the technical and economic point of view.
Trace is the first issue to be solved during design of a system, i.e. giving a certain geometrical form to system in the plan.
The arrangement of lines of a water supply system depends on issues as follows:
- design of the object/facility supplied by water, placement of the certain water consumers, an arrangement of passages, a form and the sizes of residential quarters, shops, green plantings etc.;
- existence of natural and artificial obstacles for pipes laying (the rivers, canals, ravines, railway tracks, etc.);
- a landscape.
Water supply systems are divided into the main lines and distributive.
The main lines serve for transportation of transit mass of water; distributive lines — for transportation of water from highways to certain buildings in which consumers receive water directly from external distributive lines.
The main and distributive lines are to have sufficient capacity and provide a necessary pressure of water in consumption places.
The demanded capacity and pressure are provided by the correct selection of pipes’ diameters during design of systems.
Operation reliability of water supply systems is provided by high quality material of pipes and fittings, and by laying and installation.
In inhabited residential districts and quarters it is placed the parting (distributive) pipelines of a water supply system, the sewerage, gas supply and heat supply, and also distributive electric and telephone lines. For hot water supply in residential districts it is lay a pipeline with hot water.
In special cases of big area of the residential district there can be also lay pipelines-collectors of a waste water system.
It is possible rationally place all underground pipelines in the territory of the modern residential district or large quarter by carrying put a complex design of all distributive pipelines. As a result of such design it is created the general system of underground pipelines which forms the basis for a choice of a way of their placement in the territory of the residential district or the residential quarter.
Our basic principle during design of the distributive pipelines is an aspiration to reach the smallest extent of each type of pipeline at full service of all buildings of the residential district and quarter. Design of the pipelines is followed by design of the constructions and arrangements connected with operational and technological features of a particular pipeline.
In some cases of lack of pressure in a city water supply system it is necessary to provide availability of pump station for water delivery to the top floors of multistoried buildings.
In old quarters the sewer outlets of each building were joined directly to street sewer collectors. In modern residential districts and new large quarters the sewerage pipeline located in them serves all buildings and waste water comes to a city sewage system through limited number of control wells.