Our properly developed detail project of the water intake is the instruction for drillers, builders, assemblers and other performers which will allow to simplify drilling, construction and other operations at the corresponding approach and to minimize terms of performance of these works, to optimize operation of a well and the pumping equipment, to undertake necessary environmental protection actions which finally will increase quality of water.
Design of a water intake consists of the stages as follows:
1 stage – study of opportunity to develop the design and construction of water intake;
2 stage – preparation of necessary documentation for design and survey work and construction;
3 stage – hydrogeological surveys, estimates and analysis;
4 stage – development of the detail project;
5 stage – approval of the detail project;
6 stage - obtaining a permit for drilling.
Design of a water intake includes procedures and activity as follows:
The passport of the project, the hydrogeological conclusion of the well-drilling project and the dimension of a sanitary protection zone which are all submitted at the explanatory note; an environment impact assessment, environment protection measures, the description of a sanitary protection zone; engineering-geological characteristics of platforms of pump stations; pump station, equipment and recommendations for the operation of wells; drilling and construction project; various text appendices, drawings, specifications; plan of the wells arrangement, improvement of the first belt sanitary protection zone; design estimate documentation.
The detail project of an underground water intake is a complex of a various sections as follows:
- A platform choice for wells placement;
- A choice of water-bearing layer for continuous operation;
- Determination of a possible output of one well, determination of necessary quantity of working and reserve wells, and distances between them;
- Calculation of all wells interaction;
- Selection of the well filter type and determination of its main dimensions;
- Choice and selection of the pump and water lifting equipment for continuous operation;
- Selection of drilling methods and type of drilling machines;
- Development of the well and intake design.
- Hydrogeological survey and calculations;
- Evaluation of water intake efficiency and decrease of water level dynamic both in the water intake and in area of its influence during the period of its expected useful life;
- Selection of type, scheme and design of water intake, pumping equipment and connecting communications;
- Forecast of underground water quality and development of sanitary protection zones project and in case of need also a special measures for protection of underground water against pollution by household, industrial and other sewage and waste water;
- Evaluation of water influence of the designed water intake on the nearby existing water intakes, environment, flora and fauna.
Development of design of the large and difficult deep well water intakes is usually carried out in two stages. This design additionally to a free budget calculation has to contain detailed documentation with estimates for each element or unit of a water intake.
The volume of the project and its main contents have to describe the important matters and sections as follows:
- Quantity, quality and the regime of the consumed water from the designed water intake;
- A place where it is necessary to drill boreholes or wells and the quantity of the last-named;
- Supply of sanitary protection zones;
- Type of the water-bearing stratum which should be used;
- Evaluation of a specific well (borehole) capacity at admissible decrease of static water level;
- Validity of the accepted drilling method: design of wells and filters, type of water elevators;
- Ways of plugging of annular space;
- Design of intakes and their construction methods, etc.
- The project has to contain the deliberate decisions for placement of one or several collecting tanks (reservoirs), interposition (if it is required) of water intake, treatment facilities, tanks and second stage pump stations.